federal agencies should develop a unified science and technology budget based on assessments of scientific priorities, promising new technologies, and national needs. Misconduct should not include errors of judgment; errors in recording, selection, or analysis of data; differences in opinions involving the interpretation of data; or misconduct unrelated to the research process. The Age of Materials, in 1985, an international team of researchers surprised many scientists and engineers by creating a form of pure carbon that had never before been observed. No one can predict which technologies will define the next century. Scientific information now moves quickly around the world, both through information technologies and through the movement of students and researchers across borders. The resulting series of papers do not address all the intersections of science and technology with public policy, but they do address some of the most important. ( A-2 ) For more information on staying at the frontiers of science and engineering research: A-1. Prudent stewardship of science and engineering research, as much as any other component of government policy, will dictate how our children and grandchildren will live.
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Kohli and Jaworski have defined market orientation as generation of information in organization with regard to current and future needs of the customer, distribution of this information among different departments of the organization, and global responsiveness to that information. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers, Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, 1995 Outstanding Scientists and Engineers are Needed in the Federal Government The federal government has a particular interest in science and engineering education: it is the largest employer of scientists. Ensuring the Integrity of Research The reported incidence of misconduct in research is very low, but any misconduct comes at a high price for both researchers and the public. Of course, other nations will lead the world in specific fields or skills, but by striving for preeminence in selected research fields, the nation can focus its resources on research subjects deemed most promising or important for economic productivity and competitiveness, military strength, human health. But we know that the increasing interconnection of computers into a global network will transform work, communications, entertainment, and education. In most instances, the sequential view of innovation implied by the terms research and development is simplistic and misleading. Indeed, the flexibility of the US research enterprise has been one of its great strengths. National Academy of Sciences, national Academy of Engineering, institute of Medicine. The federal government should convene panels of researchers and other experts to compare US performance in particular fields of research with other countries' performance.